Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Ophidiiformes
(Cusk eels) > Carapidae
(Pearlfishes) > Carapinae
Etymology: Encheliophis: Greek, enchelys, = eel + Greek, ophis = serpent (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range ? - 62 m (Ref. 11897). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: in tropical waters.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4104)
soft rays: 42 - 52;
Vertebrae: 136 - 140. Eel-like, moderate to shallow body depth; maxilla adnate or nearly so; cardiform teeth present; branchiostegal membranes partly or completely united; swim bladder with thin terminal membrane or bulb; lacking enlarged dentary or premaxillary fangs, dentary diastema, pelvic fins, and swim bladder rocker bone (Ref. 34024). Swim bladder long, tubular, extending well beyond 12th vertebra (Ref. 34024).
Uncommon species (Ref. 34024). Benthic (Ref. 58302, 75154). Lives in starfish (Culcita discoidea) and sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra and H. argus). In the latter reported by Trott (1970) to form male - female pairs and to parasite host. Parasitic, feeding on gonads and respiratory tree of its host. Usually associated with Bohadschia argus (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nielsen, J.G., D.M. Cohen, D.F. Markle and C.R. Robins, 1999. Ophidiiform fishes of the world (Order Ophidiiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of pearlfishes, cusk-eels, brotulas and other ophidiiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(18):178p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 34024)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.4 - 28.8, mean 27.5 °C (based on 776 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00102 (0.00046 - 0.00225), b=3.06 (2.88 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 64.7 [37.2, 113.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.581 [0.356, 0.952] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.3 [14.6, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.108 [0.064, 0.185] g/100g ; Selenium = 37.2 [20.4, 70.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 75.4 [26.5, 205.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.45 [0.98, 2.08] mg/100g (wet weight);