Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 20 - 114 m (Ref. 11790). Tropical; 35°N - 31°S, 32°E - 168°E
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea, East Africa to New Caledonia, north to Japan and south to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122106); common length : 16.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9792); max. published weight: 54.05 g (Ref. 122106)
soft rays: 49 - 60. Body on ocular side brownish with darker spots and blotches; a series of blotches along dorsal and ventral body margins; elongated anterior dorsal-fin rays white, remainder of dorsal fin, anal fin, and caudal fin brown; pectoral fin dark. Blind side of body whitish. First 12-15 (rarely 10-11) dorsal- fin rays greatly elongated. Pectoral fin on blind side absent or rudimentary. Pelvic fin on eyed side elongated. Caudal fin with 16 unbranched rays and rounded margin.
Inhabits silty sand or mud bottoms (Ref. 3132, 48637). Feeds on benthic animals (Ref. 9792). Flicks the long dorsal filaments on the front of the head when alarmed, looking just like the sticky threads that are produced by a holothurian when handled (ref. 48637).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R. and R. Swainston, 1988. The marine fishes of north-western Australia: a field guide for anglers and divers. Western Australian Museum, Perth. 201 p. (Ref. 3132)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22 - 28.6, mean 27.3 °C (based on 858 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01585 (0.00566 - 0.04435), b=2.94 (2.71 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .