Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Notothenioidei
(Icefishes) > Harpagiferidae
Etymology: Harpagifer: Greek, arpagifer, grappling hook, robbery, voracoius (Ref. 45335); palliolatus: Latin word palliolat a thorny shrub, recognition of several conspicuous spines (Ref. 11892). More on author: Richardson.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 22 m (Ref. 11892). Temperate
Southwest Atlantic: endemic to the Falkland Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11892)
Common in the littoral zone, under rocks, but may occur to depths of 40-50 m (Ref. 5191). Accorded full species recognition because of the presence of tubular cephalic pores and a single knob bearing a tentacle above each eye, thus setting it apart from the other species (Ref. 5191). Feed on small crustaceans and common in littoral of all sub-Antarctic islands (Ref. 42041).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hureau, J.-C., 1990. Harpagiferidae. p. 357-363. In O. Gon and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. 462 p. (Ref. 5191)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00174 - 0.01201), b=3.14 (2.91 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .