Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Carangoides: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 90 m (Ref. 121771), usually 30 - 60 m (Ref. 121771). Tropical; 31°N - 41°S, 25°E - 177°W
Indo-Pacific: East Africa (Ref. 3287) to Fiji, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to New Zealand.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 72.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 65.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 4.4 kg (Ref. 40637)
soft rays: 14 - 17. Color silvery, greenish above. Opercle with black spot. 20-37 weak scutes. Pectoral fins falcate. Scaleless breast to behind pelvic origin and laterally to pectoral base. Soft dorsal lobe falcate in young, becoming shorter than head in adults. First 2 anal spines detached.
Adults inhabit open waters of coastal reefs (Ref. 9710). Juveniles occur in inshore areas, including estuaries (Ref. 3287). Usually in small groups (Ref. 48635).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.6 - 28.6, mean 27.5 °C (based on 309 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01778 (0.01117 - 0.02831), b=2.89 (2.76 - 3.02), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 27 [11, 71] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.39 [0.55, 3.65] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [16.3, 20.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.325 [0.133, 0.788] g/100g ; Selenium = 9.46 [2.90, 27.08] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 95 [8, 821] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.691 [0.314, 1.554] mg/100g (wet weight);