Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Lophiiformes
(Anglerfishes) > Oneirodidae
Etymology: Chaenophryne: Greek, 'chaeno' or 'chaino' = to gape + Greek, 'phryne' = toad (alluring to a "gaping toad") (Ref. 86949). More on author: Beebe.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 350 - 1750 m (Ref. 58302). Deep-water; 44°N - 42°S, 180°W - 180°E
Tropical and subtropical parts of all oceans. Eastern Atlantic: A single female was recorded north of Madeira. Eastern Pacific: Oregon, USA and British Columbia, Canada (Ref. 6885). Western Pacific: Japan (Ref. 559) and Australia (Ref. 7300).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.3 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 75756); common length : 8.3 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6885)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 5 - 6. Caudal large; pectorals small, pediculate, directed upward (Ref. 6885). Black except for pale on esca at end of illicium (Ref. 6885). Distinguishing characteristics: esca with single conical to elongate, internally pigmented anterior appendage, less than one-seventh to nearly one-third length of escal bulb; absence of medial escal appendages; posterior escal appendages with swollen basal portion and compressed distal crest, posterior filament or filaments and pair of anterior lobes each with numerous filaments; anterolateral escal appendages and basal series of filaments absent; have the highest ratio between the number of upper and lower jaw teeth of any species, 1.08-1.45; total number of teeth in upper jaw 35-47, lower jaw with 31-38 teeth; vomerine teeth 4-8; slightly shorter illicium compared to C.ramifera and slightly longer than that of C.melanorhabdus, length 24-36.4% SL (Ref. 86949).
Meso- (Ref. 10524) and bathypelagic (Ref. 58302). Males dwarfed, non-parasitic (Ref. 10524). Specimen examined was 9.7 cm SL from Auckland Institute and Museum (AIM 6609) (Ref. 58502).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bertelsen, E., 1990. Oneirodidae. p. 498-507. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post, and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 10524)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.1 - 7.9, mean 6.1 °C (based on 492 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 48.5 [22.8, 110.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.614 [0.312, 1.206] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [15.8, 21.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.471 [0.167, 1.154] g/100g ; Selenium = 8.82 [3.16, 21.90] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 41.2 [9.4, 211.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.522 [0.310, 0.871] mg/100g (wet weight);