分類 / Names
俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 礁區魚類; 非遷移的; 深度上下限 1 - 50 m (Ref. 90102). 25°C - ?; 36°N - 36°S, 24°E - 77°W
Indo-Pacific : Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 4919) to Panama, north to southern Japan and the Hawaiian Islands, south to Lord Howe and Rapa islands. Eastern Pacific: Baja California and the Gulf of California to Panama (Ref. 9349, 11482).
大小 / 重量 / 年齡
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 30874); 最大體重: 2.0 kg (Ref. 40637)
背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 10-11; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 10 - 11. This species is characterized by the following: The body is generally greenish-brown in color, the back, sides and caudal fin profusely speckled with white spots, and the belly marked with white bars. A single bent lateral line. Body with small spines except around snout and caudal peduncle. Each nostril with two fleshy solid tentacles. Restricted gill opening.
Inhabit outer reef slopes to depths of at least 50 m, inner reef flats and lagoons. Juveniles common in weedy areas of estuaries (Ref. 4919). Also found in coastal bays and estuaries, usually near rocky reef or on sand-stretches between reefs with low algae-rubble reef to about 20 meters depth, or in shallow with sparse seagrass growth (Ref. 48637). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Usually solitary and territorial on sandy to rubble areas. Feed on fleshy, calcareous, or coralline algae, detritus, mollusks, tunicates, sponges, corals, zoanthid anemones, crabs, tube worms and echinoderms (Ref. 1602).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | 卵 | 孕卵數 | 仔魚
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
漁業: 低經濟; 水族館: 商業性
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.7 - 29, mean 27.7 (based on 1504 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03890 (0.02400 - 0.06306), b=2.83 (2.70 - 2.96), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
營養階層 (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .